General info

Name of Zoo: GaiaZOO
Name of respondent: Tjerk ter Meulen
E-mail address of respondent:

Name of Exhibit: TAIGA aviary

Opening Date/Year: October 2016


Height in m: between 8 and 12 meter
Area in m2: 1600
Volume in m3: 1600*8 = 12800, but heights and objects see pic


Shape sides: square

Shape of top: flat


1) placement main support structures: N.A.
2) materials main support: metal
3) special supports/protection for: N.A.
(a) interface net/mesh and main support: N.A.
(b) protection from main supports rotting in ground: N.A.
4) secondary supporting structures: cables
5) lowering or removal of top when snow or severe winds expected possible: no
6) constructor: N.A.

Material sides
1) solid (rock, brick wood etc): N.A.
2) glass: N.A.
3) piano wire: N.A.
4) netting/mesh: N.A.
a) material: Dyneema
b) name manufacturer: N.A.
c) supplier: N.A.
d) product name: Dyneema
e) opening size: 2,5cm
f) diameter: 2,5cm
g) color: black
h) configuration: woven
i) how is netting/meshing attached to aviary structure? woven attached to poles
j) visibility through net/mesh: excellent
k) water resistance: satisfactory
l) UV resistance: satisfactory

  Material top
1) Same as sides: Yes

Visitor viewing

Walk through / walk in: yes , please specify number of sides for visitor viewing:
Barriers between public and birds: vegetation
Other special features to enhance viewing possibilities: the path is another material and barriers are part of design

Entrances and exits


i. double doors with area between: no
ii. through attached building: yes
iii: please describe how you bring in large enclosure furnishings that are too large to be brought through the doors:

Visitor: double doors with area between

Water area

% surface area water (versus land): 10%
Frequency of drainage and cleaning: streaming water
Type of water: running
Filtration system: no
Depth in cm:

i. minimum: 10cm
ii. maximum: 60cm
iii. % surface area < 20 cm: 60%


Sand: yes
Grass: yes
Dirt: yes
Rocks: yes
Visitor path: paved
Other: pebble


Grass/other herbacious plants < 20 cm high cover:  50%
Herbacious plants/shrubs 20 cm- 1m high cover:  20%
Herbacious plants/shrubs/trees 1 m-3 m high cover: 10%
Number of coniferous trees > 3 m high: 20
Number of deciduous trees > 3 m high:  40
Are there any plants you would recommend for aviaries?:  to early
Are there any plants that have been problematic in this aviary?: vultures like to pull out grass

Predator protection

Electric fence inside:
Electric fence outside:
Different type meshing along bottom:
Plastic along perimeter:
Concrete under ground: yes
Other (specify): steal aprt up tot one meter

Suplemental lightning

Supplemental lighting outside: no

Permanent introduction/catching area present

Introduction and/or catching area present: yes, there is building with 4 smaller and 4 bigger compartments of which two have a bath

Indoor enclosure

Attached to aviary: yes

i. length: 12
ii. width: 10
iii. Height: 4 to 7

Average number of nights used per year: open year round
Average number of days used per year: daily
Direct access to main outside enclosure: yes
Direct access to alternative outdoor area: no
Substrates (specify): concrete
Usable water area present for bathing: yes
Possibility to subdivide area if need to: yes yes 8 parts
Keeper access area not shared by birds: yes
Natural sunlight received: no
Number of hours of artifical light: 12
Heating supplied: yes minimum forst free
Please describe ventilation system: N.A.
Visitor viewing: N.A.


Species currently held (if possible also historically) list: Eurasian Black Vulture, Egyptian vulture, Griffon vulture,lesser kestrel, waldrapp, pied avocet, white headed duck, northern shoveler, marmer teal, baikal teal, demoiselle crane, Bears pochard, eurasian bleu magpie, european roller, Chear phasant, eurasian thick knee, rock dove
Species not held successfully: not yet
Reason per species (please list species below)
i. escape:
ii. incompatibility:
iii. health issues:
iv. stress:
v. accidents (e.g. collisions):
vi. other:


Problems with:
Indigenous bird species entering enclosure: no
Predation in enclosures: no
Aviary withstanding winds experienced: just the first winter
Aviary withstanding snow experienced: just the first winter
Excessive mortality and or accidents with one or more species:
Other health issues, e.g. foot lesions:
Maintenance problems: frequent repairs or replacement of materials needed
Husbandry issues e.g. cleaning, heating, moving birds:


Visitor: yes, we have only been opened for two weeks due to AI
Keeper: yes, we haven’t worked in here for over a year so need to learn a lot


Materials and labor:
Maintenance (e.g. replacement of netting etc.):
Were there any choices made/possibilities to reduce costs?

total costs are around 470000 euro