General info

Name of Zoo: Dierenpark Emmen
Name of respondent:
P. de wit
E-mail address of respondent:
Name of Exhibit:
American Free-flight aviary
Opening Date/Year:


Height in m: 12
Area in m2: 3400
Volume in m3: 40800


Shape sides: L-shaped 

Shape of top: flat


1) placement main support structures: inside (e.g. tent-like)
2) materials main support: Steel
3) special supports/protection for:
(a) interface net/mesh and main support: None
(b) protection from main supports rotting in ground: N.a. 
4) secondary supporting structures: cables
5) lowering or removal of top when snow or severe winds expected possible: No
6) constructor: External company

Material sides
1) solid (rock, brick wood etc): 0
2) glass: 0
3) piano wire: 0
4) netting/mesh: 4
a) material: PVC coated wire
b) name manufacturer: ?
c) supplier: ?
d) product name: ?
e) opening size: 5×5
f) diameter: 7
g) color: Black
h) configuration: chain link
i) how is netting/meshing attached to aviary structure? N.A.
j) visibility through net/mesh: satisfactory
k) water resistance: excellent
l) UV resistance: excellent

  Material top
1) Same as sides: yes

Visitor viewing

Walk through / walk in: yes

please specify number of sides for visitor viewing: N.A. ?
Barriers between public and birds: rails
Other special features to enhance viewing possibilities: None

Water area

% surface area water (versus land): 40
Frequency of drainage and cleaning: once a year
Type of water: running
Filtration system: yes
Depth in cm:

i. minimum: 5
ii. maximum: 173
iii. % surface area < 20 cm: 10


Sand:  0
Grass: 10
Dirt: 10
Rocks: 10
Visitor path: 30
Other: 0


Grass/other herbacious plants < 20 cm high cover:  20
Herbacious plants/shrubs 20 cm- 1m high cover:  20
Herbacious plants/shrubs/trees 1 m-3 m high cover: 20
Number of coniferous trees > 3 m high: 0
Number of deciduous trees > 3 m high: 12
Are there any plants you would recommend for aviaries?:  N.A.
Are there any plants that have been problematic in this aviary?: N.A.

Predator protection

Electric fence inside: no
Electric fence outside:  yes 30 cm high
Different type meshing along bottom: no
Plastic along perimeter: no
Concrete under ground: no
Other (specify): N.A.

Suplemental lightning

Supplemental lighting outside: no

Permanent introduction/catching area present

Introduction and/or catching area present: yes

Indoor enclosure

Attached to aviary: Yes

i. length: 5,2 – 39 m2
ii. width:
iii. Height: 2.5 – 5 m

Average number of nights used per year: 320
Average number of days used per year: 150
Direct access to main outside enclosure: yes
Direct access to alternative outdoor area: no
Substrates (specify): Tiles
Usable water area present for bathing: yes
Possibility to subdivide area if need to: no
Keeper access area not shared by birds: yes
Natural sunlight received: yes
Number of hours of artifical light: 8
Heating supplied: no
Please describe ventilation system: ?
Visitor viewing: no


Species currently held (if possible also historically) list: N.A.
Species not held successfully: N.A.
Reason per species (please list species below)
i. escape: N.A.
ii. incompatibility: N.A.
iii. health issues: N.A.
iv. stress: N.A.
v. accidents (e.g. collisions): N.A.
vi. other: N.A.


Problems with:
Indigenous bird species entering enclosure: yes, specify sparrows and blackbirds
Predation in enclosures: yes, specify Beech marten
Aviary withstanding winds experienced: no
Aviary withstanding snow experienced: yes, specify Snow lays on roof and has to be removed by hand
Excessive mortality and or accidents with one or more species: yes, specify with inca terns and blackwinged stilt because of marten 
Other health issues, e.g. foot lesions: no
Frequent replacement or repair of materials: yes, specify Trees in the aviary can create holes in the mesh which needs to be monitored and replaced frequently
Husbandry issues e.g. cleaning, heating, moving birds: no


Visitor: yes, specify Some people are scared of the free-flying birds
Keeper: yes, specify It is hard to clean the visitor path, because you need a lot of wires it is hard to move the cleaning system

Enclosure data submission

Contact person: N.A.
Data submitted: 07-02-12